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Once part of a monastery (some chunks of this monastery are now incorporated into the Albertina Museum), it started in the 1330s. Little from the outside would tell you that, but once you enter, you will recognize the age from the original Gothic vaulting.
However, the primary attractions are actually the richly decorated tombs, some of which were added only some 200 years ago. The 'Christinendenkmal' ('Christine′s Memorial') is the most elaborate and impressive of these. It is dedicated to Maria Christina, the favorite daughter of Empress Maria Theresia (and this means quite a lot, as she had a dozen or so to choose from). The memorial was built on order by her widower, Duke Albrecht of Saxo-Tetschen. The tomb itself has the shape of a pyramid that is flanked by marble mourners.
The tomb is empty, by the way, as Maria Christina is actually buried in the Kaisergruft like every proper Habsburg.
The Augustinerkirche, however, is most famous for being where the hearts of 54 Habsburg rulers are kept. The urns containing them can be viewed in the Herzgrüftel.
The church also hosts regular evening classical music concerts, and the 11am Mass on Sunday is celebrated with a full choir and orchestra; the choir practices on a regular basis and times are posted on the church door.
This place is an excellent place to listen to classical church choir - so go check it out!